Work from the Hatfull lab published in Nature Medicine has helped a 15-year-old patient from England recover from an antibiotic-resistant infection following a lung transplant. The phage used to treat the patient were initially isolated through the SEA-PHAGES program, and the lab engineered the bacteriophage to kill the Mycobacterium infection. This is the first time genetically modified virus has been used to treat bacterial infections. The three phages used to treat the patient, Muddy, ZoeJ, and BP, were identfied from their library of over 15,000 phage as ones that could infect this strain of bacteria. ZoeJ and BP had to be genetically modified make them effective in killing the bacteria. The lab was then able to send the phage cocktail to be used for this new treatment.