Publications from PLE researchers

PLE has long served as an outstanding location for research. Below is a list of PLE publications, from 1951 to 2017:


Brogan III, W. R., and R. A. Relyea. 2017. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals macrophytes. Environmental Pollution 220:688-695.

Gervasi, S. S., P.R. Stephens, J. Hua, C. L. Searle, G. Xie, J. Urbina, D. Olson, B. A. Bancroft, V. Weis, J. I. Hammond, R. A. Relyea, and A. R. Blaustein. 2017. Linking ecology and epidemiology to understand predictors of multi-host responses to an emerging pathogen, the amphibian chytrid fungus. PLoS ONE DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0167882.

Heckel, C.D., and S. Kalisz. 2017. Life history trait divergence among populations of a non-palatable species reveals strong non-trophic indirect effects of an abundant herbivore. Oikos 126:604-613.

Jones, D. K., T. D. Dang, J. Urbina, R. J. Bendis, J. C. Buck, R. D. Cothran, A. R. Blaustein, and R. A. Relyea. 2017. Effect of simultaneous amphibian exposure to pesticides and an emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Environmental Science & Technology 51:671–679.

Meiners, S.J., Phipps, K.K., Pendergast IV, T.H., Canam, T., and Carson, W.P. (2017) Soil microbial communities alter leaf chemistry and influence allelopathic potential among coexisting plant species. Oecologia. 183: 1155-1165.

Peters, S. & S. Nowicki. 2017. Overproduction and attrition: the fates of songs memorized during song learning in songbirds. Animal Behaviour 124: 255-261.

Wright C. M., Hyland T. D., Izzo A. S., McDermott D. R., Tibbetts E. A., Pruitt J. N.  2017.  Polistes metricus queens exhibit personality variation and behavioral syndromes. Current Zoology. :zox008.

Wright C. M., Skinker V. E., Izzo A. S., Tibbetts E. A., Pruitt J. N.  2017.  Queen personality type predicts nest-guarding behaviour, colony size and the subsequent collective aggressiveness of the colony. Animal Behaviour. 124:7–13.



Anderson RC, Searcy WA, Peters S, Hughes M, DuBois AL, Nowicki S. 2016. Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a song bird. Animal Cognition 20:309-320.

Bendis, R. J., and R. A. Relyea. 2016. Wetland defense:  Naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities. Oecologia 181:487-498.

Bendis, R. J., and R. A. Relyea. 2016. If you see one, have you seen them all?  Community-wide effects of insecticide cross-resistance in zooplankton populations near and far from agriculture. Environmental Pollution 215:234-246.

DuBois, A. L., S. Nowicki & W. A. Searcy. 2016. A test for repertoire matching in eastern song sparrows. J. Avian Biol. 47: 146-152.

Hoverman, J. T., and R. A. Relyea. 2016. Prey responses to fine-scale variation in predation risk from combined predators. Oikos 125:254-261

Jones, D. K., J. Hua, and R. A. Relyea. 2016. Effects of endosulfan in freshwater pond communities. Freshwater Science 35:152-163

Limeri, L.B., and Morehouse, N.I. 2016. The evolutionary history of the ‘alba’ polymorphism in the butterfly sub-family Coliadinae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 117:716-724.

Opdyke, M.R., and J.R. Daugherty. 2016. Checklist of Lichens of Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Evansia 33(1):9-13

Pendergast T. H., IV, S. M. Hanlon, Z. M. Long, A. A. Royo and W. P. Carson (2016) The legacy of deer overabundance: long-term delays in herbaceous understory recovery. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46:363-369.

Shaffery, H.M., and R. A. Relyea. 2016. Dissecting the smell of fear:  Investigating the processes that induce anti-predator defenses in larval amphibians. Oecologia 180:55-65.

Stoler, A. B., Burke, D., and Relyea, R. A. 2016. Litter chemistry and chemical diversity drive ecosystem processes in forest ponds. Ecology 97:1783-1795

Stoler, A. B. and Relyea, R. A. 2016. Leaf litter species identity alters the structure of pond communities. Oikos 125:179-191. (PLE Contribution #319)



Akcay C, Anderson RC, Nowicki S, Beecher MD, Searcy WA. 2015.  Quiet threats: soft song as an aggressive signal in birds.  Animal Behaviour 105, 267-274.

Bradley, P. W., S. S. Gervasi, J. Hua, R. D. Cothran, R. A. Relyea, D. H. Olson, and A. R. Blaustein. 2015. Differences in sensitivity to the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among amphibian populations. Conservation Biology 29:1347-1356.

Brogan, W. R., and R. A. Relyea. 2015. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities. PLoS ONE 10:e0126677.

Buck, J. C., J. Hua, W. R. Brogan, T. D. Dang, J. Urbina, R. J. Bendis, A. B. Stoler, A. R. Blaustein, and R. A. Relyea. 2015. Effects of pesticide mixtures on host-pathogen dynamics of the amphibian chytrid fungus. PLOS ONE 10:e0132832.

Chips, M. J., E. H. Yerger, A. Hervanek, T. Nuttle, A. A. Royo, J. N. Pruitt, T. P. McGlynn, C. L. Riggall, and W. P. Carson. 2015. The indirect impact of long-term overbrowsing on insects in the Allegheny National Forest region of Pennsylvania. Northeastern Naturalist 22(4):782-797.

Cothran, R. D., B. J. French, and R. A. Relyea. 2015. An assessment of putative sexually antagonistic traits in a freshwater amphipod species. Ethology 121:740-748.

Cothran, R. D., S. S. Gervasi, C. Murray, B. J. French, P. W. Bradley, J. Urbina, A. R. Blaustein, and R. A. Relyea. 2015. Carotenoids and amphibians:  Harmful effects on life history, but no effect on susceptibility to the emerging infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Conservation Physiology 3:cov005. (PLE Contribution #359)

Cothran, R. D., P. Noyes, and R. A. Relyea. 2015. An empirical test of stable species coexistence in an amphipod species complex. Oecologia 178:819-831. (PLE Contribution #358)

Groner, M. L., and R. A. Relyea. 2015. Predators reduce Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection loads in their prey. Freshwater Biology 60:1699-1704.

Hovick SM and WP Carson (2015) Tailoring biocontrol to maximize top-down effects: on the importance of underlying site fertility. Ecological Applications 25:125-139. (PLE Contribution #357)

Hua, J., D. K. Jones, B. M. Mattes, R. D. Cothran, R. A. Relyea, and J. T. Hoverman. 2015. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action. Environmental Pollution 206:56-63.

Hua, J., D. K. Jones, B. M. Mattes, R. D. Cothran, R. A. Relyea, and J. T. Hoverman. 2015. The contribution of phenotypic plasticity to the evolution of insecticide tolerance in amphibian populations. Evolutionary Applications 8:586-596.

Jones, D. K., and R. A. Relyea. 2015. Here today, gone tomorrow:  Induction and retention of pesticide tolerance in amphibians. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34:2295-2301.

Lachlan, R. F. & S. Nowicki. 2015. Context-dependent categorical perception in a songbird. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 112: 1892-1897

Liu, I. A., J. E. Johndrow, J. Abe, S. Lüpold, D. F. Westneat, K. Yasukawa & S. Nowicki. 2015. Genetic diversity does not explain variation in extra-pair paternity in multiple populations of a songbird. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, in press(PLE Contribution #356)

Shaffery, H. M., and R. A. Relyea. 2015. Predator-induced defenses in five species of larval Ambystoma. Copeia 103:552-562.

Woodley, S. K., B. M. Mattes, E. K. Yates, and R. A. Relyea. 2015. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of a pesticide or predator cues induces changes in brain architecture in larval amphibians. Oecologia 179:655-665



Anderson RC, Peters S, Nowicki, S (2014).  Effects of early auditory experience on the development of local song preference in female swamp sparrows.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68(3) 437-447 (PLE Contribution #338)

Bendis, R. J., and R. A. Relyea. 2014. Living on the edge: Populations of two zooplankton species living closer to agricultural fields are more resistant to a common insecticide. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33:2835-2841. (PLE Contribution #355)

Brogan, W. R., and R. A. Relyea. 2014. A new mechanism of macrophyte mitigation: How submerged plants reduce malathion's acute toxicity to aquatic animals. Chemosphere 108:405-410 (PLE Contribution #345)

Chips MJ, MR Magliocca*, B Hassan* and WP Carson (2014) Quantifying deer and turkey leaf litter disturbances in the eastern deciduous forest: have nontrophic effects of consumers been overlooked? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 44:1128-1132. (PLE Contribution #354)

Cothran, R. D., A. B. Stoler, and R. A. Relyea. 2014. Leaves and litterbugs:  how litter quality affects the performance of freshwater amphipods. Freshwater Science 33:812-819.(PLE Contribution #342)

Goos, J. M., B. J. French, R. A. Relyea, R. D. Cothran, and P. D. Jeyasingh. 2014. Sex-specific plasticity in somatic phosphorus content of Hyalella amphipods. Hydrobiologia 722:93-102. (PLE Contribution #339)

Groner, M. L., L. A. Rollins-Smith, L. K. Reinert, J. Hempel, M. E. Bier, and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Interactive effects of competition and predator-cues on immune responses of leopard frogs at metamorphosis. Journal of Experimental Biology 217:351-358. (PLE Contribution #340)

Hoverman, J. T., R. D. Cothran, and R. A. Relyea. 2014. Generalist versus specialist strategies of plasticity: Snail responses to predators that have different foraging modes. Freshwater Biology 59:1101-1112.(PLE Contribution #343)

Hua, J., D. K. Jones, and R. A. Relyea. 2014. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides. Environmental Science & Technology 48:4078-4085 (PLE Contribution #346)

Hua, J., and R. A. Relyea. 2014. Chemical cocktails in aquatic ecosystems: Pesticide effects on resistance and resilience. Environmental Pollution 189:18-26.(PLE Contribution #344)

Katzenberger, M., J. Hammond, H. Duarte, M. Tejedo, C. Calabuig, and R. A. Relyea. 2014. Swimming with predators and pesticides:  how environmental stressors affect the thermal physiology of tadpoles. PLOS ONE 9:e98265.

Koski, M. and T-L. Ashman. 2014. Dissecting pollinator responses to a ubiquitous ultraviolet floral pattern in the wild. Functional Ecology DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12242 (99) (PLE Contribution #353)

Lachlan, R. F., R. C. Anderson, S. Peters, W. A. Searcy & S. Nowicki. 2014. Prototypical versions of learned swamp sparrow songs are more effective signals than are outliers. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B  281: 20140252 (PLE Contribution #352)

Lachlan RF, Anderson RC, Peters S, Searcy WA, Nowicki S.  (2014). Typical versions of learned swamp sparrow songs are more effective signals than are less typical versions.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B  281(1785) 20140252 (PLE Contribution #351)

Limeri, L.B. and Morehouse, N.I. 2014. Sensory biases and the maintenance of color polymorphisms: Viewing the Colias ‘alba’ polymorphism through the male visual system. Functional Ecology, 28:1197-1207. 

Murren, C. J., H. J. Maclean, S. E. Diamond, U. K. Steiner, M. A. Heskel, C. A. Handelsman, C. K. Ghalambor, J. R. Auld, H. S. Callahan, D. W. Pfennig, R. A. Relyea, C. D. Schlichting, and J. Kingsolver. 2014. Evolutionary change in continuous reaction norms. American Naturalist 183:453-467. (PLE Contribution #341)

Nowicki, S. &  W. A. Searcy. 2014. The evolution of vocal learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 28: 48–53 (PLE Contribution #350)

Peters, S., W. A. Searcy & S. Nowicki. 2014. Developmental stress, song learning, and cognition. Intergrative and Comparative Biology 54: 555–567 (PLE Contribution #349)

Searcy, W. A., C. Akçay, S. Nowicki, & M. D. Beecher. 2014. Aggressive signaling in song sparrows and other songbirds. Advances in the Study of Behavior 46: 89-125 (PLE Contribution #348)



Anderson, R. C., A. L. Dubois, D. K. Piech, W. A. Searcy & S. Nowicki. 2013. Receiver response to an aggressive visual signal, the wing-wave display, in swamp sparrows.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67:593–600. (PLE Contribution #333)

Brogan, W. R., and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Mitigating with macrophytes:  Submersed plants reduce the toxicity of pesticide-contaminated water to zooplankton. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31: 699-706. (PLE Contribution #324)

Brogan, W. R., and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Mitigation of malathion’s acute toxicity by four submersed macrophyte species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 31:1535-1543. (PLE Contribution #323)

Carson, W. P., C. J. Peterson, and A. A. Royo. 2013. A case study of chronic deer overbrowsing throughout the Allegheny National Forest region in Pennsylvania. Pages __-__ in F. S. Gilliam and M. R. Roberts, editors. The herbaceous layer in forests of eastern North America. (PLE Contribution #336)

Cothran, R. D., A. R. Stiff, K. Chapman, G. A. Wellborn, and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Reproductive interference via interspecific pairing in an amphipod species complex. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67:1357-1367. (PLE Contribution #329)

Cothran, R. D., J. Brown, and R. A. Relyea. 2013. The evolution of amphibian resistance to agrochemicals. Evolutionary Applications 6:832-841. (PLE Contribution #325)

Cothran, R. D., K. A. Henderson, D. Schmidenberg, and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Phenotypically similar but ecologically distinct: Differences in competitive ability and predation risk among amphipods. Oikos 122:1429-1440. (PLE Contribution #318)

Gervasi, S. S., J. Urbina, J. Hua, T. Chestnut, R.A. Relyea, and A. R. Blaustein. 2013. Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility to the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus). EcoHealth 10:166-171. (PLE Contribution #326)

Groner, M. L., J. C. Buck, S. Gervasi, A. R. Blaustein, L K. Reinert, L. A. Rollins-Smith, M. E. Bier, J. Hempel, and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Lasting effects: Larval exposure to predators alters immune function and disease in post-metamorphic wood frogs. Ecological Applications 23:1443-1454. (PLE Contribution #327)

Hanlon, S. M., and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Sublethal effects of pesticides on predator-prey interactions in amphibians. Copeia 2013:691-698 (PLE Contribution #347)

Hua, J., N. Morehouse, and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Pesticide resistance in amphibians: Induced resistance in susceptible populations, constitutive tolerance in tolerant populations. Evolutionary Applications 6:1028-1040. (PLE Contribution #328)

Hua, J., R. Cothran, A. Stoler, and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Cross-tolerance in amphibians:  Wood frog mortality when exposed to three insecticides with a common mode of action. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32:932-936. (PLE Contribution #322)

Hughes, M., Hyman, J., and Scales, J. 2013. Fortune favours the aggressive: territory quality and behavioural syndromes in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia. Animal Behaviour 85:441-451. (PLE Contribution #320)

Hyman, J., Kripple, J. and Myers, R. 2013. Personality influences alarm calling behaviour in song sparrows. Behaviour DOI:10.1163/1568539X-00003070. (PLE Contribution #316)

Pendergast IV, T.H., D. J. Burke, and W. P. Carson.  2013.  Belowground biotic complexity drives aboveground dynamics: A test of the soil community feedback model. New Phytologist  197:1300-1310. (PLE Contribution #281)

Searcy, W. A., Anderson, R. C., Ballentine, B. & S. Nowicki.  2013. Limits to reliability in avian aggressive signals. Behaviour 150: 1129-1145. (PLE Contribution #335)

Searcy, W. A., A. Dubois, K. Rivera Cáceres & S. Nowicki.  2013.  A test of a hierarchical signaling model in song sparrows. Animal Behaviour 86: 309-315. (PLE Contribution #334)

Stoler, A. 2012. Bottom-up meets top-down: leaf litter inputs influence predator-prey interactions in wetlands. Oecologia: 173:249-257. (PLE Contribution #310)

Stoler, A., and R. A. Relyea. 2013. Leaf litter quality induces morphological and developmental changes in larval amphibians. Ecology 94:1594–1603. (PLE Contribution #321)

Sweeney, K., B. Cusack, F. Armagost, T. O'Brian, C. N. Keiser, and J. N. Pruitt (2013) Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts. Behavioral Ecology 24:1205-1210. (PLE Contribution #331)

Sweeney, K., R. D. H. Gadd, Z. L. Hess, D. McDermott, L. MacDonald, P. Cotter, F. Armagost, J. Z. Chen, A. W. Berning, N. DiRienzo, and J. N. Pruitt (2013) Testing the effects of rearing environment, selection, and developmental stage on the emergence of a behavioral syndrome. Ethology 119:436-447. (PLE Contribution #330)



Anderson, R., Searcy, W., Hughes, M., and Nowicki, S. 2012. The receiver-dependent cost of soft song: a signal of aggressive intent in songbirds. Animal Behavior 83: 1443-1448. (PLE Contribution #317)pdf

Buck, J. C., E. A. Scheessele, R. A. Relyea, and A. R. Blaustein. 2012. The effects of multiple stressors on wetland communities: pesticides, pathogens, and competing amphibians. Freshwater Biology 57:61-73. (PLE Contribution #308)pdf

Cothran, R. D., A. R. Stiff, P. D. Jeyasingh, and R. A. Relyea. 2012. Eutrophication and predation risk affect sexual trait expression and mating success. Evolution 66:708-719. (PLE Contribution #307)pdf

Cothran, R. D., K. Chapman, A. R. Stiff, and R. A. Relyea. 2012. "Cryptic" direct benefits of mate choice: Choosy females experience reduced predation risk while in precopula. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66:905-913. (PLE Contribution #313)pdf

Egea-Serrano, A., R. A. Relyea, M. Tejedo, and M. Torralva. 2012. Understanding the impact of chemicals on amphibians:  A meta-analytic review. Ecology and Evolution 2:1382-1397. (PLE Contribution #311)pdf

Hammond, J. I., D. K. Jones, P. R. Stephens, and R. A. Relyea. 2012. Phylogeny meets ecotoxicology: Evolutionary patterns in sensitivity to a common insecticide among North American amphibians. Evolutionary Applications 5:593-606. (PLE Contribution #314)pdf

Hoverman, J. T., and R. A. Relyea. 2012. The long-term impacts of predators on prey: Inducible defenses, population dynamics, and indirect effects. Oikos 121:1219-1230. (PLE Contribution #309)pdf

Hoverman, J. T., C. J. Davis, E. E. Werner, D. K. Skelly, R. A. Relyea, and K. L. Yurewicz. 2012. Environmental gradients and the structure of freshwater snail communities. Ecography 34:1039-1048. (PLE Contribution #298)pdf

Hua, J., and R. A. Relyea. 2012. East Coast versus West Coast: Effects of an insecticide in communities containing different amphibian assemblages. Journal of Freshwater Science 21:787-799. (PLE Contribution #312)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2012. New effects of Roundup® on amphibians:  Predators reduce herbicide mortality while herbicides induce anti-predator morphology. Ecological Applications 22:634-647. (PLE Contribution #306)pdf

Tejedo, M., H. Duarte, L. M. Gutiérrez-Pesquera, J. F. Beltrán, M. Katzenberger, F. Marangoni, C. A. Navas, A. G. Nicieza, R. A. Relyea, E. L. Rezende, A. Richter-Boix, M. Santos, M. Simon, and M. Solé. 2012. El studio de las tolerancias térmicas para el examen de hipótesis biogeográficas y de la vulnerabilidad de los organismos ante el calentamiento global. Ejemplos en anfibios. Boletín de la Asociación Herpetológica Española 23:1-26 (PLE Contribution #315)pdf.

Turner, A.M. and S.D. Peacor. 2012. Scaling up infochemicals: Ecological consequences of chemosensory assessment of predation risk. Pages 140-156 in Chemical Ecology in Aquatic Systems. Eds., Christer Brönmark and Lars-Anders Hansson, Oxford University Press. (PLE Contribution #332)



Ashman, T-L, R. B. Spigler, Goldberg, M., R. Govindarajulu. Fragaria: a polyploid lineage for understanding sex chromosome evolution.  Pp 67-90 in R. Navajas-Pérez (editor). New Insights on Plant Sex Chromosomes. Nova Science Publishers. (accepted 11/10) (PLE Contribution #304)pdf

Auld, J. R., A. A. Agrawal, and R. A. Relyea. 2011. Measuring the cost of plasticity:  Avoid multi-collinearity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278:2726-2727. (PLE Contribution #305)pdf

Auld, J.R., and R.A. Relyea. 2011. Adaptive plasticity in predator-induced defenses in a common freshwater snail: altered selection and mode of predation due to prey phenotype. Evolutionary Ecology 25:189-202. (PLE Contribution #279)pdf

Cothran, R. D., F. Radarian, and R. A. Relyea. 2011. Altering aquatic food webs with a global insecticide: Arthropod-amphibian links in wetland communities. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 30:893-912. (PLE Contribution #304)pdf

Blaustein, A. R., B. A. Han, R. A. Relyea, P. T. J. Johnson,  J. C. Buck, S. S. Gervasi, andL. B. Kats. 2011. The complexity of amphibian population declines: Understanding the role of co-factors in driving amphibian losses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 123:108-119. (PLE Contribution #288)pdf

Boogert, N. J., R. C. Anderson, S. Peters, W. A. Searc, and S. Nowicki. 2011. Song repertoire size in male song sparrows correlates with detour reaching, but not with other cognitive measures. Animal Behavior 81:1209-1216. (PLE Contribution #300)pdf

DuBois ,A. L., S. Nowicki, and W. A. Searcy. 2011. Discrimination of vocal performance by male swamp sparrows.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:717-726. (PLE Contribution #290)pdf

Groner, M. L., and R. A. Relyea. 2011. A tale of two pesticides: How common insecticides affect aquatic communities. Freshwater Biology 56:2391-2404. (PLE Contribution #303)pdf

Hale, A. N., S. J. Tonsor., and S. Kalisz. 2011. Testing the mutualism disruption hypothesis: Physiological mechanisms for invasion of intact perennial plant communities. Ecosphere 2:Article 110 (PLE Contribution #284)pdf

Hovick, S.M., D.E. Bunker, C.J. Peterson, and W.P. Carson. 2011. Purple loosestrife suppresses plant species colonization far more than broad-leaved cattail: experimental evidence with plant community implications. Journal of Ecology 99:225-234.  (PLE Contribution #295)pdf

Hughes, M., and J. Hyman. 2011. Should I stay or should I go now: late establishment and low site fidelity as alternative territorial behaviors. Ethology 117:979-991. (PLE Contribution #301)pdf

Jones, D. K., J. R. Hammond, and R. A. Relyea. 2011. Competitive stress can make the herbicide Roundup® more deadly to larval amphibians. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2:446-454. (PLE Contribution #285)pdf

Nowicki, S. & W. A. Searcy.  2011. Are better singers smarter? Behavioral Ecology 22:10-11. (PLE Contribution #303)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2011. Amphibians are not ready for Roundup®. Pages 267-300 in J. Elliott, C. Bishop, and C. Morrisey, eds. Wildlife Ecotoxicology—Forensic Approaches. Springer. (PLE Contribution #286)pdf

Rosvall, K. A. 2011. Cost of female intrasexual aggression in terms of offspring quality: a cross-fostering study. Ethology 117: 1-13. (PLE Contribution #283)pdf

Rosvall, K. A. 2011. Maintenance of variation in sexually selected traits in females: a case study using intrasexual aggression in tree swallows. Journal of Avian Biology 42:454-462. (PLE Contribution #296)pdf

Scales, J., J. Hyman, and M. Hughes. 2011. Behavioral syndromes break down in urban song sparrow populations. Ethology 117:887-895. (PLE Contribution #302)pdf

Searle, C. L., S. S. Gervasi, J. Hua, J. I. Hammond, R. A. Relyea, D. Olson, and A. R. Blaustein . 2011. Differential host susceptibility to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an emerging amphibian pathogen. Conservation Biology 25:965-974. (PLE Contribution #299)pdf

Spigler, R. B., K. S. Lewers and T-L. Ashman. 2011. Genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in a subdioecious plant with a proto-sex chromosome.  Evolution 65:1114-1126. (PLE Contribution #297)pdf

Spigler, R.B., and T.-L. Ashman. 2011. Sex ratio and subdioecy in Fragaria virginiana: the roles of plasticity and gene flow examined. New Phytologist 190:1058-1068. (PLE Contribution #282)pdf

Stoler, A. B., and R. A. Relyea. 2011. Living in the litter: The influence of tree leaf litter on wetland communities. Oikos 120:862-872. (PLE Contribution #287)pdf



Auld, J.R., and R.A. Relyea. 2010. Life-history plasticity and inbreeding depression under mate limitation and predation risk: cumulative lifetime fitness dissected with a life table response experiment. Evolutionary Ecology 24:1171-1185.(PLE Contribution #268)pdf

Auld, J.R., and R. A. Relyea. 2010. Inbreeding depression in adaptive plasticity under predation risk in a freshwater snail. Biology Letters 6:222-224.(PLE Contribution #269)pdf

Auld, J.R., A. A. Agrawal, and R.A. Relyea. 2010. Re-evaluating the costs and limits of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277:503-511. (PLE Contribution #270)pdf

Bishop E., Spigler, R. B. and T-L. Ashman. 2010. Sex-allocation plasticity in hermaphrodites of sexually dimorphic Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae). Botany 88:231-240. (PLE Contribution #236)pdf

Brady, J.K. and A.M. Turner. 2010. Species-specific effects of gastropods on leaf litter processing in pond mesocosms. Hydrobiologia 651:93-100. (PLE Contribution #264)pdf

Collin, C. L., and T-L. Ashman. 2010. Root fungi in wild strawberry: root colonization depends on host inbreeding. Evolutionary Ecology Research 12: 477-490. (PLE Contribution #263)pdf

Cothran, R., R. Greco, and R. A. Relyea. 2010. No evidence that a common pesticide impairs female mate choice in a freshwater amphipod. Environmental Toxicology 91:319-326. (PLE Contribution #253)pdf

Cothran, R. D., A. Kuzmic, G. A. Wellborn, and R. A. Relyea. 2010. Phenotypic manipulation provides insights into the function of a sexually selected trait in a freshwater crustacean species complex. Animal Behaviour 80:543-549. (PLE Contribution #280)pdf

Cronin, J. P., S. J. Tonsor, and W. P. Carson. 2010. A simultaneous test of trophic interaction models: which vegetation characteristic explains herbivore control over plant community mass. Ecology Letters 13: 202-212. (PLE Contribution #276)pdf

Evans, J., Boudreau, K., Hyman, J. 2010. Behavioral syndromes in urban and rural populations of song sparrows. Ethology 116: 588-595. (PLE Contribution #293)pdf

Groner, M. L., and R. A. Relyea. 2010. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is present in northwest Pennsylvania, USA, with high prevalence in Notophthalmus viridescens. Herpetological Review. 41:462-465. (PLE Contribution #289)pdf

Heckel, C.D., N.A. Bourg, W.B. McShea, and S. Kalisz. 2010. Non-consumptive effects of a generalist ungulate herbivore drive decline of unpalatable forest herbs. Ecology 91:319-326. (PLE Contribution #275)pdf

Jones, D. K., J. I. Hammond, and R.A. Relyea. 2010. Roundup® and amphibians: The importance of concentration, application time, and stratification. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29:2016-2025. (PLE Contribution #272)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2010. Multiple stressors and indirect food web effects of contaminants on herptofauna. Pages 475-486 in D. Sparling, ed. Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 2nd edition. (PLE Contribution #258)pdf

Relyea, R. A., and K. Edwards. 2010. What doesn't kill you makes you sluggish: How sublethal pesticides alter predator-prey interactions. Copeia 2010:558-567. (PLE Contribution #278)pdf

Rohde, A. S. and T-L. Ashman. 2010. "The effects of florivory and inbreeding on reproduction in hermaphrodites of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginianaI" . International Journal of Plant Science 171:175-184 (PLE Contribution #233)pdf

Rosvall, K. A. 2010. Do males offset the cost of female aggression? An experimental test in a biparental songbird. Behavioral Ecology 21:161-168. (PLE Contribution #235)pdf

Searcy, W. A., S. Peters, S. Kipper, and S. Nowicki. 2010. Female response to song reflects developmental history in swamp sparrows. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:1343-1349. (PLE Contribution #292)pdf

Spigler, R. B., K. S. Lewers, A. Johnson and T-L. Ashman. 2010. Comparative mapping reveals autosomal origin of sex chromosome in octoploid Fragaria virginiana. (Special Feature on Sex and Recombination) Journal of Heredity 101(S1):107-117. (PLE Contribution #294)pdf

Steets, J.A. and T.-L. Ashman. 2010. Maternal effects of herbivory in Impatiens capensis. International Journal of Plant Sciences 171:509-518. (PLE Contribution #277)pdf

Turner, A.M. and M.F. Chislock. 2010. Blinded by the stink: Nutrient enrichment impairs the perception of predation risk by freshwater snails. Ecological Applications 20: 2089-2095. (PLE Contribution #291)pdf

Turner, A.M., E.J. Cholak, and M. Groner. 2010. Expanding American lotus and dissolved oxygen concentrations of a shallow lake. American Midland Naturalist 164:1-8. (PLE Contribution #266)pdf



Anderson, R. (2009). Operant conditioning and copulation solicitation display assays reveal a stable preference for local song by female swamp sparrows Melospiza georgiana. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 64: 215-223 (PLE Contribution #252)pdf

Botham, R., C. L. Collin and T-L. Ashman. 2009. Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions affect inbreeding depression in wild strawberry. International Journal of Botany 170:143-150. (PLE Contribution #225)pdf

Butzler, J. M. and J. M. Chase. 2009. The effects of variable nutrient additions on a pond mesocosm community. Hydrobiologia 617:65-73. (PLE Contribution #222)pdf

Case, S. L. and T.-L. Ashman. 2009. Resources and pollinators contribute to population sex ratio bias and pollen limitation in gynodioecious wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana). Oikos 118:1250-1260. (PLE Contribution #232)pdf

DuBois, A., S. Nowicki, and W. A. Searcy. 2009. Swamp sparrows modulate vocal performance in an aggressive context. Biology Letters 5: 163-165. (PLE Contribution #218)pdf

Fraker, M. E., F. Hu, V. Cuddapah, S. A. McCollum, R. A. Relyea, J. Hempel, and R. J. Denver. 2009. Characterization of an alarm pheromone secreted by amphibian tadpoles that induces rapid behavioral inhibition and suppression of the neuroendocrine stress axis. Hormones and Behavior 55:520-529. (PLE Contribution #254)pdf

Hoverman, J. T., and R. A. Relyea. 2009. Survival trade-offs associated with inducible defenses in snails: The roles of multiple predators and developmental plasticity. Functional Ecology 23:1179-1188. (PLE Contribution #255)pdf

Jones, D. K., J. I. Hammond, and R. A. Relyea. 2009. Highly lethal effects of endosulfan across nine species of tadpoles: Lag effects and family-level sensitivity. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28:1939-1945. (PLE Contribution #256)pdf

Knight, T. M., H. Caswell, and S. Kalisz. 2009. Population growth rate of a common understory herb decreases non-linearly across a gradient of deer herbivory. Forest Ecology and Management 257:1095-1103. (PLE Contribution #231)pdf

Majetic, C. J., R. A. Raguso, and T.-L. Ashman. 2009. The sweet small of success: floral scent affects pollinator attraction and seed fitness in Hesperis matronalis. Functional Ecology 10:1093-1111. (PLE Contribution #229)pdf

Penet, L., C. L. Collin, and T-L. Ashman. 2009. Florivory increases selfing: an experimental study in the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana. Plant Biology 11:38-45. (PLE Contribution #257)pdf

Poindexter, D. B. and R. Thompson. 2009. Vascular flora and plant habitats of Wallace Woods, a Hemlock-Northern Hardwoods Palustrine Forest, Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Rhodora, Journal of the New England Botanical Club 111:231-260. (PLE Contribution #227)pdf

Prather, J. F., S. Nowicki, R. C. Anderson, S. Peters and R. A. Mooney. 2009. Neural correlates of categorical perception in learned vocal communication. Nature Neuroscience 12:121-128. (PLE Contribution #217)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2009. A cocktail of contaminants: How pesticide mixtures at low concentrations affect aquatic communities. Oecologia 169:363-376. (PLE Contribution #230)pdf

Relyea, R. A., and D. K. Jones. 2009. The toxicity of Roundup Original MAX® to 13 species of larval amphibians. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28:2004-2008. (PLE Contribution #259)pdf

Schoeppner, N. M., and R. A. Relyea. 2009. Interpreting the smells of predation: How alarm cues and kairomones induce different prey defenses. Functional Ecology 23:1114-1121. (PLE Contribution #260)pdf

Schoeppner, N. M., and R. A. Relyea. 2009. Phenotypic plasticity in response to fine-grained environmental variation in predation. Functional Ecology 23:587-594. (PLE Contribution #261)pdf

Schoeppner, N. M., and R. A. Relyea. 2009. When should prey respond to consumed heterospecifics? Testing hypotheses of perceived risk. Copeia 2009:190-194. (PLE Contribution #262)pdf

Searcy, W. A., and S. Nowicki. 2009. Consequences of brain development for sexual signalling in songbirds. Pages 71-87 in: Dukas, R, and J. Ratcliffe (Eds.) Cognitive Ecology II. (PLE Contribution #214)pdf

Searcy, W. A., and S. Nowicki. 2009. Sexual selection and the evolution of animal signals. In: Larry R. Squire (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, vol. 8, pp. 769-776, Academic Press: Oxford. (PLE Contribution #215)pdf

Spigler, R. B., K. S. Lewers, D. Main, and T-L. Ashman. 2009. Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana reveals earliest form of sex chromosome. Heredity 102:507-517.(PLE Contribution #263)pdf

Turner, A.M., and S.L. Montgomery. 2009. Hydroperiod, predators and the distribution of physid snails across the freshwater habitat gradient. Freshwater Biology 54:1189-1201. (PLE Contribution #265)pdf 



Anderson, R. C., W. A. Searcy, and S. Nowicki. 2008. Testing the function of song matching in birds: responses of eastern male song sparrows Melospiza melodia to partial song matching. Behaviour 154: 347-363. (PLE Contribution #209)pdf

Anderson, R. C., W. A. Searcy, S. Peters and S. Nowicki. 2008. Soft song in song sparrows: acoustic structure and implications for signal function. Ethology 114:662-676. (PLE Contribution #213)pdf

Auld, J. R., and R. A. Relyea. 2008. Are there interactive effects of mate availability and predation risk on life history and defense in a simultaneous hermaphrodite? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21:1371-1378. (PLE Contribution #245)pdf

Ballentine, B., W. A. Searcy, and S. Nowicki. 2008. Reliable aggressive signalling in swamp sparrows. Animal Behavior 75:693-703. (PLE Contribution #210)pdf

Banta J. A., S. C. Stark, M. H. H. Stevens, T. H. Pendergast IV, A. Baumert, and W. P. Carson. 2008. Light reduction predicts widespread patterns of dominance between asters and goldenrods. Plant Ecology 199:65–76. (PLE Contribution #246)pdf

Botham, R., C. L. Collin and T-L. Ashman. 2008. "Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions affect inbreeding depression in wild strawberry." International Journal of Botany 170:143-150. (PLE Contribution #225)pdf

Carson, W.P. S.M. Hovick, A.J. Baumert, D.E. Bunker, and T.H. Pendergast. 2008. Evaluating the post-release efficacy if invasive plant biocontrol by insects: a comprehensive approach. Arthropod–Plant Interactions 2: 23-33. (PLE Contribution #247)pdf

Hoverman, J. T., R. A. Relyea. 2008. Temporal environmental variation and phenotypic plasticity: a mechanism underlying priority effects. Oikos 117:23-32. (PLE Contribution #196)pdf

Majetic, Cassie, R. A. Raguso, and T-L. Ashman. 2008. The impact of biochemistry vs. population membership on floral scent profiles in colour polymorphic Hesperis matronalis. Annals of Botany 102:911-922. (PLE Contribution #226)pdf

Penet, L., C. L. Collin, and T-L. Ashman. 2008. "Florivory increases selfing: an experimental study in the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana." Plant Biology 11:38-45. (PLE Contribution #224)pdf

Quesada-Aguilar, A., S. Kalisz, and T.-L. Ashman. 2008. Flower morphology and pollinator dynamics in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae): Implications for the evolution of andromonoecy. American Journal of Botany 95:974-984. (PLE Contribution #221)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2008. The effects of pesticides on amphibians. Pages 48-49 in S. N. Stuart, M. Hoffmann, J. S. Chanson, N. A. Cox, R. J. Berridge, P. Ramani, and B. E. Young (Eds.). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, in association with IUCN, Conservation International and NatureServe. (PLE Contribution #248)pdf

Relyea, R. A., and J. T. Hoverman. 2008. Interactive effects of pesticides and predators on aquatic communities. Oikos 117:1647-1658. (PLE Contribution #249)pdf

Relyea, R. A., and N. Diecks. 2008. An unforeseen chain of events: Lethal effects of pesticides at sublethal concentrations. Ecological Applications 18:1728-1742. (PLE Contribution #250)pdf

Rosvall, K. 2008. Sexual selection on aggressiveness in females: evidence from an experimental test with tree swallows. Animal Behavior 75:1603-1610. (PLE Contribution #194)pdf

Schoeppner, N. M. and Relyea, R. A. 2008. Detecting small environmental differences: risk-response curves for predator-induced behavior and morphology. Oecologia 154:742-754. (PLE Contribution #198)pdf

Searcy, W. A. and S. Nowicki. 2008. Bird song and the problem of signal reliability. American Scientist 96: 114-121. (PLE Contribution #216)pdf

Searcy, W. A., R. C. Anderson, and S. Nowicki. 2008. Is bird song a reliable signal of aggressive intent? A reply. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62: 1213-1216. (PLE Contribution #212)pdf

Spigler, R. B., K. S. Lewers, D. Main, and T-L. Ashman. 2008. "Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana reveals earliest form of sex chromosome." Heredity 2008:1-11.(PLE Contribution #223)pdf

Turner, A.M. 2008. Predator diet and prey behaviour: Freshwater snails discriminate among closely related prey in a predator's diet. Animal Behaviour 76:1211-1217. (PLE Contribution #251)pdf



Anderson, R., S. Nowicki, and W. A. Searcy. 2007. Soft song in song sparrows: response of males and females to an enigmatic signal. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61: 1267-1274. (PLE Contribution #202)pdf

Ashman, T.-L. and L. Penet. 2007. Direct and indirect effects of a sex-biased antagonist on male and female fertility: consequences for reproductive trait evolution in a gender dimorphic plant. American Naturalist 169: 595-608. (PLE Contribution #190)pdf

Case, A.L. and T-L. Ashman. 2007. An experimental test of the effects of resource and sex ratio on maternal fitness and phenotypic selection in gynodioecious Fragaria virginiana. Evolution 61: 1900-1911. (PLE Contribution #197)pdf

Hoverman, J. T., and R. A. Relyea. 2007. How flexible is phenotypic plasticity? Developmental windows for the induction and reversal of inducible defenses. Ecology 88:693-705. (PLE Contribution #267)pdf

Hoverman, J. T., and R. A. Relyea. 2007. The rules of engagement: How to defend against combination predators. Oecologia 154:551-560. (PLE Contribution #201)pdf

Hughes, M., R. C. Anderson, W. A. Searcy, L. M. Bottensek, and S. Nowicki. 2007. Song type sharing and territory tenure in eastern song sparrows: implications for the evolution of song repertoires. Animal Behaviour 73:701-710. (PLE Contribution #188)pdf

Knight, Tiffany. 2007. Population-level consequences of herbivory timing in Trillium grandiflorum. American Midland Naturalist 157: 27-38. (PLE Contribution #189)pdf

Long, Z. T., T. H. Pendergast, and W. P. Carson. 2007. The impact of deer on relationships between tree growth and mortality in an old-growth beech-maple forest. Forest Ecology and Management 252:230-238. (PLE Contribution #195)pdf

Majetic, C. J., R. A. Raguso, S. J. Tonsor, and T. L. Ashman. 2007. Flower color-flower scent associations in polymorphic Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae). Photochemistry 68: 865-874. (PLE Contribution #191)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2007. Getting out alive: How predators affect metamorphic decisions. Oecologia 152:389-400. (PLE Contribution #244)pdf

Steets, J. A., T. M. Knight, and T.-L. Ashman. 2007. The interactive effects of herbivory and mixed mating for the population dynamics of Impatiens capensis. American Naturalist 170: 113-127. (PLE Contribution #192)pdf

Steets, J. A., D. E. Wolf, J. R. Auld & T.-L. Ashman. 2007. The role of natural enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in hermaphroditic plants and animals. Evolution 61:2043-2055. (PLE Contribution #274)pdf

Turner, A.M., and M.F. Chislock. 2007. Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails. Oecologia 407-415. (PLE Contribution #206)pdf

Turner, A.M., and N. Ruhl. 2007. Phosphorus loadings associated with a park tourist attraction: limnological consequences of feeding the fish. Environmental Management 39:526-533. (PLE Contribution #205)pdf

Turner, A.M., R.R. Turner, and S.R. Ray. 2007. Competition and intraguild egg predation among freshwater snails: re-examining the mechanisms of interspecific interactions. Oikos 116:1895-1903.(PLE Contribution #204)pdf



Hyman, J, and M. Hughes. 2006. Territory owners discriminate between aggressive and non-aggressive neighbours. Animal Behaviour 72:209-215. (PLE Contribution #273)pdf

Relyea, R. A, and J. T. Hoverman. 2006. Assessing the ecology in ecotoxicology: A review and synthesis in freshwater systems. Ecology Letters 9:1157-1171. (PLE Contribution #185)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2006. The effects of pesticides, pH and predatory stress in amphibians under mesocosm conditions. Ecotoxicology 15:503-511. (PLE Contribution #184)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2006. The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities: Response. Ecological Applications 16:2027-2034. (PLE Contribution #183)pdf

Searcy, W. A., and S. Nowicki. 2006. Signal interception and the use of soft song in aggressive interactions. Ethology 112:865-872. (PLE Contribution #242)pdf

Searcy, W. A., R. C. Anderson, and S. Nowicki. 2006. Bird song as a signal of aggressive intent. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 60:234-241. (PLE Contribution #243)pdf

Steets, J. A., J. L. Hamrick, and T.-L. Ashman. 2006. The consequences of vegetative herbivory for the maintenance of intermediate outcrossing in an annual plant. Ecology 87:2717-2727. (PLE Contribution #181)pdf

Turner, A.M. and N. Ruhl. 2006. Phosphorus loadings associated with a park tourist attraction: limnological consequences of feeding fish. Environmental Management 39:526-533. (PLE Contribution #186)pdf

Turner, A.M., S.L. Turner, and H.A. Lappi. 2006. Learning, memory, and predator avoidance by freshwater snails: effects of experience on predator recognition and defensive strategy. Animal Behaviour 72:1443-1450. (PLE Contribution #187)pdf


Anderson, R. C., W. A. Searcy, and S. Nowicki. 2005. Partial song matching in an eastern population of song sparrows, Melospiza melodia. Animal Behaviour 69:189-196. (PLE Contribution #169)pdf

Ashman, T-L. 2005. The limits on sexual dimorphism in vegetative and phenological traits in a gynodioecious plant: An integrative study of selection and quantitative genetics in a common garden. The American Naturalist 166:S7-S16. (PLE Contribution #162)pdf

Ashman, T-L. and E. A. King. 2005. Are flower-visiting ants mutualists or antagonists? A study in a gynodioecious wild strawberry. American Journal of Botany 92:891-895. (PLE Contribution #163)pdf

Ashman, T-L., D. Cole, M. Bradburn. B. Blaney, and R. Raguso. 2005 Scent of a male: the role of floral volatiles in pollination of a gender dimorphic plant. Ecology 86:2099-2105. (PLE Contribution #164)pdf

Carson, W. P., J. A. Banta, A. A. Royo and C. Kirschbaum. 2005. Plant communities growing on boulders in the Allegheny National Forest: Evidence for boulders as refugia from deer and as a bioassay of Overbrowsing. National Areas Journal 25:10-18. (PLE Contribution #165)pdf

Cole, D. H. and T-L. Ashman. 2005. Sexes show differential tolerance to spittlebug damage and consequences of damage for multi-species interactions. American Journal of Botany 92:1708-1713.(PLE Contribution #173)pdf

Comisky, L., A. Royo and W. P. Carson. 2005. Deer browsing creates rock refugia gardens on large boulders in the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania. The American Midland Naturalist 154:201-206. (PLE Contribution #175)pdf

Hoverman, J. T., J. R. Auld and R. Relyea. 2005. Putting prey back together again: intregrating predator-induced behavior, morphology and life history. Oecologia 144:481-491. (PLE Contribution #177)pdf

Miner, B. G., S. E. Sultan, S. G. Morgan, D. K. Padilla, and R. A. Relyea. 2005. Ecological consequences of phenotypic plasticity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:685-692. (PLE Contribution #182)pdf

Nowicki, S. & W. A. Searcy. 2005. Adaptive priorities in brain development: Theoretical comment on Pravosudov (2005). Behavioral Neuroscience 119: 1415-1418. (PLE Contribution #228)pdf

Nowicki, S. and W. A. Searcy. 2005. Song and mate choice in birds: how the development of behavior helps us understand and function. The Auk 122:1-14. (PLE Contribution #171)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2005. Constraints on inducible defenses: Phylogeny, ontogeny, and phenotypic trade-offs. Pages 189-207 in P. Barbosa and I. Castellanos, eds. Ecology of Predator-Prey Interactions. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford (PLE Contribution #228)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2005. The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities. Ecological Applications 15:618-627. (PLE Contribution #166)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2005. The lethal impact of Roundup® on aquatic and terrestrial amphibians. Ecological Applications 15:1118-1124. (PLE Contribution #179)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2005. The lethal impacts of Roundup® and predatory stress on six species of North American tadpoles. Archives of Environmnetal Contamination and Toxicology 48:351-357. (PLE Contribution #180)pdf

Relyea, R. A. and J. R. Auld. 2005. Predator- and competitor-induced plasticity: how changes in foraging morphology affect phenotypic trade-offs. Ecology 86:1723-1729. (PLE Contribution #174)pdf

Relyea, R. A., N. M. Schoeppner, and J. T. Hoverman. 2005. Pesticides and amphibians: The importance of community context. Ecological Applications 15:1125-1134. (PLE Contribution #178)pdf

Schoeppner, N. M. and R. A. Relyea. 2005. Damage, digestion, and defence, the roles of alarm cues and kairomones for inducing prey defences. Ecology Letters 8:505-512. (PLE Contribution #172)pdf

Steets, J.A. R. Salla, and T.-L. Ashman. 2005. Herbivory and competition interact to affect reproductive and mating system expression in Impatiens capensis. American Naturalist 167:591-600. (PLE Contribution #176)pdf



Ashman, T-L, and M. T. Morgan. 2004. Explaining phenotypic selection on plant attractive characters: Male function, gender balance or ecological context? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: B. 271:553-559. (PLE Contribution #144)pdf

Ashman, T-L, T. Knight, J. Steets, P. Amarasekare, M. Burd, D. Campbell, M. Dudash, M. Johnston, S. J. Mazer, R. Mitchell, M.T. Morgan, and W. Wilson. 2004. Pollen limitation of plant reproduction: Archetype or ambiguity? Ecology 85:2408-2421. (PLE Contribution #152)pdf

Ashman, T-L., D. Cole, and M. Bradburn. 2004. Sex-differential resistance and tolerance to herbivory in a gynodioecious wild strawberry: Implications for floral and sexual system evolution. Ecology 85:2550-2559. (PLE Contribution #145)pdf

Ballentine, B., J. Hyman, and S. Nowicki. 2004. Vocal performance influences female response to male bird song: an experimental test. Behavioral Ecology 15:163-168. (PLE Contribution #159)pdf

Beebee, M. D. 2004. The functions of multiple singing modes: experimental tests in yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia). Animal Behaviour 67:1089-1097. (PLE Contribution #155)pdf

Beebee, M.D. 2004. Variation in structural complexity and vocal performance in the songs of a wood-warbler: evidence for the function of distinct singing modes. Ethology 110:531-542. (PLE Contribution #156)pdf

Hyman, J., M. Hughes, W. A. Searcy & S. Nowicki. 2004. Individual variation in the strength of territory defense in song sparrows: correlates of age, territory tenure, and neighbor aggressiveness. Behaviour 141: 15-27. (PLE Contribution #170)pdf

Nowicki, S. & W. A. Searcy. 2004. Song function and the evolution of female preferences: Why birds sing and why brains matter. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1016: 704-723. (PLE Contribution #238)pdf

Podos, J., S. Peters & S. Nowicki. 2004. Calibration of song learning targets during vocal ontogeny in swamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana). Animal Behavior 68: 929-940. (PLE Contribution #239)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2004. Fine-tuned phenotypes: Tadpole plasticity under 16 combinations of predators and competitors. Ecology 85:172-179. (PLE Contribution #151)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2004. Growth and survival of five amphibians species exposed to combinations of pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23:1737-1742. (PLE Contribution #160)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2004. Integrating phenotypic plasticity when death is on the line: Insights from predator-prey systems. Pages 176-194 in M. Pigliucci and K. Preston, eds. The Evolutionary Biology of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. (PLE Contribution #240)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2004. Synergistic impacts of malathion and predatory stress on six species of North American tadpoles. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry 23:1080-1084. (PLE Contribution #150)pdf

Relyea, R. A., J. R. Auld. 2004. Having the guts to compete: how intestinal plasticity explains cost of inducible defenses. Ecology Letters 7:869-875. (PLE Contribution #161)pdf

Searcy, W. A., S. Peters and S. Nowicki. 2004. Effects of early nutrition on growth rate and adult size in song sparrows Melospiza melodia. Journal of Avian Biology 35:269-279. (PLE Contribution #167)pdf

Seiler, S. M. and A. M. Turner. 2004. Growth and population size of crayfish in headwater streams: individual- and higher-level consequences of acidification. Freshwater Biology 49:1-12. (PLE Contribution #154)pdf

Sih, A., J. Kerby, A. Bell, and R. A. Relyea. 2004. Response to Schmidt: Pesticides, mortality and population growth rate. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:460-461. (PLE Contribution #241)pdf

Steets, J.A. and T.-L. Ashman. 2004. Herbivory alters the expression of a mixed-mating system. American Journal of Botany 91:1046-1051. (PLE Contribution #157)pdf

Stevens, M. H. H., S. A. Schnitzer, D. Bunker, and W. P. Carson. 2004. Establishment limitations reduces species recruitment and species richness as soil resources rise. Journal of Ecology 92:339-347. (PLE Contribution #146)pdf

Turner, A.M. 2004. Non-lethal effects of predators on prey growth rates depend on prey density and nutrient additions. Oikos 104:561-569. (PLE Contribution #153)pdf

Wildschutte, H., D.M. Wolfe, A. Tamewitz, and J.G. Lawrence. 2004. Protozoan predation, diversifying selection, and the evolution of antigenic diversity in Salmonella. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:10644-10649. (PLE Contribution #200)pdf



Ashley, M. V., K. J. Craft., K. L. Jones, J. L. Fessler, K. Lewers, S. M. Styan and T.-L. Ashman. 2003. High variability and isomic segregation of microsatellites in the Octaploid Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 107:1201-1207. (PLE Contribution #129)pdf

Ashman, T.-L. 2003. Constraints on the evolution of males and sexual dimorphism: field estimates of genetic architecture of reproductive traits in three populations of gynodioecious Fragaria virginiana. Evolution 57:2012-2025. (PLE Contribution #136)pdf

Chase, J. and T. M. Knight. 2003. Drought-induced mosquito outbreaks in wetlands. Ecology Letters 6:1017-1024. (PLE Contribution #143)pdf

Forbes, A. E. and J. M. Chase. 2003. The role of habitat connectivity and landscape geometry in experimental zooplankton metacommunities. Oikos 96:433-440. (PLE Contribution #131)pdf

Knight, T. M. 2003. Effects of herbivory and its timing across populations of Trillium Grandiflorum (Liliaceae). American Journal of Botany 90:1207-1214. (PLE Contribution #140)pdf

Knight, T. M. 2003. Floral density, pollen limitation, and reproductive success in Trillium grandiflorum. Oecologia 137: 557-563. (PLE Contribution #142)pdf

Knight, T. M. 2003. The effects of herbivory and pollen limitations on the declining population of Trillium grandiflorum. Ecological Applications 14:915-928. (PLE Contribution #141)pdf

Morgan, M. T. and Ashman, T.-L. 2003. Quantitative character evolution under complicated sexual systems, illustrated in Gynodioecious Fragaria virginiana. American Naturalist 162:257-264. (PLE Contribution #133)pdf

Mower, Christina, A. M. Turner. 2003. Behavior, morphology, and the coexistence of two pulmonate snails with molluscivorous fish: a comparative approach American Malacological Bulletin 19:39-46. (PLE Contribution #139)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2003. How prey respond to combined predators: A review and an empirical test. Ecology 84:1827-1839. (PLE Contribution #149)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2003. Predator cues and pesticides: A double dose of danger for amphibians. Ecological Applications 13:1515-1521. (PLE Contribution #138)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2003. Predators come and predators go: the reversibility of predator-induced traits. Ecology 84:1840-1848. (PLE Contribution #158)pdf

Searcy, W. A., S. Nowicki and S. Peters. 2003. Phonology and Geographic Song Discrimination in Song Sparrows. Ethology 109:23-35. (PLE Contribution #148)pdf

Turner, A. M. and S. L. Montgomery. 2003. Spatial and temporal scales of predator avoidance: experiments with fish and snails. Ecology 84:616-622. (PLE Contribution #130)pdf



Beebee, M. D. 2002. Song sharing by yellow warblers differs between two modes of singing: implications for song function. The Condor 104:146-155. (PLE Contribution #128)pdf

Kalla, S. and T.-L. Ashman. 2002. The effects of pollen competition on progeny vigor in Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae) depend on progeny growth environment. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163:335-340. (PLE Contribution #127)pdf

Nowicki, S., W. A. Searcy and S. Peters. 2002. Quality of song learning affects female response to male bird song. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 269:1949-1954. (PLE Contribution #135)pdf

Nowicki, S., W. A. Searcy, T. Krueger and M. Hughes. 2002. Individual variation in response to simulated territorial challenge among territory-holding song sparrows. Journal of Avian Biology 33:253-259.(PLE Contribution #147)pdf

Relyea, R. A. 2002. Competitor-induced plasticity in tadpoles: consequences, cues, and connections to predator-induced plasticity. Ecological Monographs 72:523-540. (PLE Contribution #237)pdf

Searcy, W. A., S. Nowicki, M. Hughes and S. Peters. 2002. Geographic song discrimination in relation and dispersal distances in song sparrows. American Naturalist 159:221-230. (PLE Contribution #134)pdf

Stevens, M. H. H and W. P. Carson. 2002. Resource quantity, not resource heterogeneity, maintains plant diversity. Ecology Letters 5:420-426. (PLE Contribution #110)pdf


Ashman, T.-L. 2001. The role of herbivores in the evaluation of separate series from Hermophorditis. Ecology Concepts and Synthesis Section 83:1175-1184. (PLE Contribution #126)pdf

Ashman, T.-L. and C. Diefenderfer. 2001. Sex ratio represents a unique context for selection on attractive traits: consequences for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. American Naturalist 157:334-347. (PLE Contribution #121)pdf

Ashman, T.-L., J. Pacyna, C. Diefenderfer, and T. Leftwich. 2001. Size-dependent sex allocation in a gynodioecious wild strawberry: The effects of sex morph and inflorescence architecture. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162:327-334. (PLE Contribution #122)pdf

Bernot, R., A. M. Turner. 2001. Predator identity and trait-mediated indirect effects in a littoral food web. Oecologia 129:139-146. (PLE Contribution #123)pdf

Nowicki, S., W. A. Searcy, M. Hughes, and J. Podos. 2001. The evolution of bird song: male and female response to song innovation in swamp sparrows. Animal Behaviour 62:1189-1195. (PLE Contribution #228)pdf



Ashman, T.-L, S. Shivitz, and J. Swetz. 2000. Understanding the basis of pollinator selectivity in sexually dimorphic Fragaria virginiana. Oikos 90:347-356. (PLE Contribution #117)

Ashman, T.-L. 2000. Pollinator selectivity and its implications for the evolution of dioecy and sexual dimorphism. Ecology 81:2577-2591. (PLE Contribution #102)

Ashman, T.-L. and M. S. Hitchens. 2000. Dissecting the causes of variation in intra-inflorescence allocation in a sexually polymorphic species, Fragaria virginiana. American Journal of Botany 87:197-204. (PLE Contribution #107)

Peters, S., Searcy, W. A., Beecher, M. D. and Nowicki, S. 2000. Geographic variation in the organization of song sparrow repertoires. The Auk 117:936-942. (PLE Contribution #125)

Searcy, W. A., S. Nowicki, and C. Hogan. 2000. Song type variants and aggressive context. Behavioral Ecology Sociobiology 48:358-363. (PLE Contribution #124)

Turner, A. M., R. J. Bernot, and C. M. Boes. 2000. Chemical cues modify species interactions: the ecological consequences of predator avoidance by freshwater snails. Oikos 88: 148-158. (PLE Contribution #112)



Ashman, T.-L. 1999. Quantitative genetics of floral traits in a gynodioecious wild strawberry Fragaria virginiana: implications for the independent evolution of female and hermaphrodites floral phenotypes. Heredity 83:731-741. (PLE Contribution #105)

Ashman, Tia-Lynn. 1999. Determinants of sex allocation in a gynodioecious wild strawberry: implications for the evolution of dioecy and sexual dimorphism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12:648-661. (PLE Contribution #101)

Kalisz, S., D. Vogler, B. Fails, M. Finer, E. Sheppard, and T. Herman. 1999. Evidence for delayed selfing in Collinsia verna. American Journal of Botany 86:1239-1247. (PLE Contribution #116)

Kalisz, S., F. M. Hanzawa, S. J. Tonsor, D. A. Thiede and S. J. Voigt. 1999. Ant-mediated seed dispersal alters pattern of relatedness in a population of Trillium grandiflorum. Ecology 80:2620-2634. (PLE Contribution #115)

Niewinski, B. C. and C. P. Ferreri. 1999. A Comparison of three structures for estimating the age of yellow perch. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:872-877. (PLE Contribution #114)

Reed, W. L., A. M. Turner, and P. R. Sotherland. 1999. Consequences of egg-size variations in the red-winged blackbird. Auk 116:549-552. (PLE Contribution #113)

Searcy, W. A. and S. Nowicki. 1999. Functions of song variation in song sparrows. in Neural Mechanisms of Behavior MIT Press, Cambridge, MA pp. 577-595. (PLE Contribution #119)

Searcy, W. A., S. Nowicki, and S. Peters. 1999. Song types as fundamental units in vocal repertoires. Animal Behavior 58:37-44. (PLE Contribution #120)

Stevens, M.H.H. and K. W. Cummins. 1999. Effects of long-term disturbance on riparian vegetation and in-stream characteristics. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 14:1 17. (PLE Contribution #109)

Stevens, M.H.H. and W.P. Carson. 1999. Plant density determines species richness along an experimental productivity gradient. Ecology 80:455-465. (PLE Contribution #108)

Stevens, M.H.H. and W.P. Carson. 1999. The significance of assemblage-level thinning for species richness. Journal of Ecology 87:490-502. (PLE Contribution #132)

Turner, A., S. A. Fetterolf, and R. Bernot. 1999. Predator identity and consumer behavior: differential effects of fish and crayfish on the habitat use of a freshwater snail. Oecologia 118:242-247. (PLE Contribution #106)


Ashman, Tia-Lynn. 1998. Is relative pollen production or removal a good predictor of relative male fitness? An experimental exploration with wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana, Rosaceae). American Journal of Botany 85:1166 1171. (PLE Contribution #100)

Hughes, M., S. Nowicki, W. A. Searcy, and S. Peters. 1998. Song-type sharing in song sparrows: implications for repertoire function and song learning. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol 42:437-446. (PLE Contribution #103)

McPeek, M. A. and S. Kalisz. 1998. On the joint evolution of dispersal and dormancy in metapopulations. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 52:33-51. (PLE Contribution #111)

Nastase, A. J. 1998. Diurnal time budgets and behavioral repertoire of refuge Canada geese in Pennsylvania. Proc. Intern. Canada Goose Sym. pp. 367-374. (PLE Contribution #99)

Nowicki, S., W. A. Searcy, and M. Hughes. 1998. The territory defense function of song in song sparrows: a test with the speaker occupation design. Behaviour 135:615-628. (PLE Contribution #104)



Nastase, A. J. and D. A. Sherry. 1997. Effect of brood mixing on location and survivorship of juvenile Canada geese. Animal Behavior 54:503-507. (PLE Contribution #98)

Searcy, W. A., and M. S. Capp. 1997. Estradiol dosage and the solicitation display assay in red-winged blackbirds. Condor 99:826-828. (PLE Contribution #220)

Searcy, W. A., S. Nowicki, and M. Hughes. 1997. The response of male and female song sparrows to geographic variation in song. Condor 99:651-657. (PLE Contribution #118)



Searcy, W. A. 1996. Sound pressure levels and song preferences in female red-winged blackbirds. Ethology 102:187-196. (PLE Contribution #219)



Searcy, W. A., J. Podos, S. Peters, and S. Nowicki. 1995. Discrimination of song types and variants in song sparrows. Animal Behaviour 49:1219-1226. (PLE Contribution #208)



Grubbs, S. A. and K. W. Cummins. 1994. A leaf-toughness method for directly measuring the processing of naturally entrained leaf detritus in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 13:68-73. (PLE Contribution #96)

Grubbs, S. A. and K. W. Cummins. 1994. Processing and macroinvertebrate colonization of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) leaves in two streams differing in summer biota, thermal regime and riparian vegetation. American Midland Naturalist 132:284-293. (PLE Contribution #97)

Searcy, W. A., S. Coffman, and D. F. Raikow. 1994. Habituation, recovery, and the similarity of song types within repertoires in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) (Aves, Emberizidae). Ethology 98:38-49. (PLE Contribution #207)



Capp, Michael S. 1992. Tests of the function of the song repertoire in Bobolinks. Condor 94:468-479. (PLE Contribution #95)

Searcy, W. A. 1992. Song repertoires and mate choice in birds. American Zoologist 37:71-80. (PLE Contribution #199)

Wilzbach, M.A. 1992. Interactions between native brook trout and hatchery brown trout: effects on habitat use, feeding, and growth. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:287-296 (DeWald, Lynn and Wilzbach, Margaret, eds.). (PLE Contribution #94)



Capp, M. S. and W. A. Searcy. 1991. Acoustical communication of aggressive intentions by territorial male bobolinks. Behavioral Ecology 2:319-326. (PLE Contribution #93)

Capp, M. S., and W. A. Searcy 1991. An experimental study of song type function in the bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 28:179-186. (PLE Contribution #193)


Searcy, W. A. 1990. Species recognition of song by female red-winged blackbirds. Animal Behaviour 40:1119-1127. (PLE Contribution #168)

Searcy, W. A. and K. Yasukawa. 1990. Use of the song repertoire in intersexual and intrasexual contexts by male red-winged blackbirds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27:123-128. (PLE Contribution #92)



Searcy, W. A. 1989. Function of male courtship vocalizations in red-winged blackbirds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24:325-331. (PLE Contribution #89)

Searcy, W. A. and K. Yasukawa. 1989. Alternative models of territorial polygyny in birds. American Naturalist 134:323-343. (PLE Contribution #91)

Wilzbach, M. A. and K. W. Cummins. 1989. An assessment of short-term depletion of stream macroinvertebrate benthos by drift. Hydrobiologia 185:29 39. (PLE Contribution #90)



Roberts, L. B., and W. A. Searcy. 1988. Dominance relationships in harems of female red-winged blackbirds. Auk 105:89-96 (PLE Contribution #137)

Searcy, W. A. 1988. Do female red-winged blackbirds limit their own breeding densities? Ecology 69:85-95. (PLE Contribution #87)

Searcy, W. A and E. A. Brenowitz. 1988. Sexual differences in species recognition of avian song. Nature 332:152-154. (PLE Contribution #88)


DeLa Rosa, C. L. and A. J. Nastase. 1987. Larvae of Metriocnemus cf. Fuscipes, Limnophyes sp., Pentaneurini (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Pitcher Plants, Sarracenia purpurea. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 60:339-341. (PLE Contribution #86)

Mares, M. A. and T. E. Lacher, Jr. 1987. Social spacing in small mammals: Patterns of individual variation. Animal Zoologist 27:293-306. (PLE Contribution #82)

Schwartz, F. J. 1987. Homing behavior of tagged and displaced carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Pymatuning Lake, Pennsylvania. Ohio Journal of Science 87:15-22. (PLE Contribution #85)

Searcy, W. A., and P. Marler. 1987. Response of sparrows to songs of isolation-reared and deafened males: further evidence for innate auditory templates. Developmental Psychobiology 20:509-519.(PLE Contribution #272)


Schwartz, F. J. 1986. A leadless stackable trap for harvesting common carp. North American Journal of Fish Management 5:596-598. (PLE Contribution #84)

Searcy, W. A. 1986. Are female red-winged blackbirds teritorial? Animal Behavior 34:1381-1391. (PLE Contribution #83)


Garber, K. J. and R. T. Hartman. 1985. Internal phosphorus loading to shallow Edinboro Lake in Northwestern Pennsylvania. Hydrobiologia 122:45-52. (PLE Contribution #80)

Searcy, W. A., P. Marler, and S. S. Peters. 1985. Songs of isolation-reared sparrows function in communication, but are significantly less effective than learned songs. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 17:223-229. (PLE Contribution #271)

Yasukawa, K. and W. A. Searcy. 1985. Song repertoires and density assessment in red-winged blackbirds: further tests of the Beau Geste hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 16:171-175. (PLE Contribution #81)


Dudley, J. L. 1984. Algal communities in the leaf liquid of the Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia purpurea L. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 58:213-315. (PLE Contribution #78)

Ferrington, L. C., Jr. 1984. Drift dynamics of Chironomidae larvae: I. Preliminary results and discussion of importance of mesh size and level of taxonomic identification in resolving Chironomidae diel drift patterns. Hydrobiologia 114:215-227. (PLE Contribution #79)


Coffman, W. P. 1983. Thoracic chaetotaxy of chironomid pupae (Diptera: Chironomidae). Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. 34:61-70. (PLE Contribution #76)

Searcy, W. A. and Ken Yasukawa. 1983. Sexual selection and red-winged blackbirds. American Scientist 71:166-174. (PLE Contribution #77)


Coleman, B. D., M. A. Mares, M. R. Willig, and Y.-H. Hsieh. 1982. Randomness, area, and species richness. Ecology 63-1121-1133. (PLE Contribution #71)

Mares, M. A., T. E. Lacher, Jr., M. R. Willig, N. A. Bitar, A. Klinger, R. Adams, and D. Tazik. 1982. An experimental analysis of the determinants of social spacing in Tamias striatus. Ecology 63:267-273.(PLE Contribution #72)

Nastase, A. J. 1982. An inexpensive trap for capturing flightless Canada Geese. North American Bird Bander 7:47-48. (PLE Contribution #73)

Nastase, A. J. 1982. Orientation and homing ability of the barn swallow. Journal of Field Ornithology 53:15-21. (PLE Contribution #74)

Werner, M. T., L. L. Osborne, W. Kodrich, and D. I. Wood. 1982. Effects of coal strip mining on the structure of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Town Run, Clarion County, Pennsylvania. Penna. Acad. Sci. 55:142-146. (PLE Contribution #75)


Herbst, R. P. and R. T. Hartman. 1981. Phytoplankton distribution of a duckweek covered pond. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 1:97-111. (PLE Contribution #68)

Mares, M. A., K. E. Streilein and M. R. Willig. 1981. Experimental assessment of several population estimation techniques on an introduced population of eastern chipmunks. Journal of Mammalogy 62:315-328. (PLE Contribution #69)

Swegman, B. G., W. Walker, and J. L. Sykora. 1981. The adult Trichoptera and Linesville Creek, Crawford County, Pennsylvania with notes on their flight activity. American Entomological Society 107:125-147.(PLE Contribution #70)


Geotz, G. 1980. Tracheal patterns of larval Chironomidae (Diptera, Nematocera). Entomologica Scandinavica 11:291-296. (PLE Contribution #58)

Krzysik, A. J. 1980. Microhabitat selection and brooding phenology of Desmognathus fuscus fuscus in Western Pennsylvania. Journal of Herpetology 14:291 292. (PLE Contribution #59)

Krzysik, A. J. 1980. Trophic aspects of brooding behavior in Desmognathus fuscus fuscus. Journal of Herpetology 14:426-428. (PLE Contribution #60)

Mares, M. A., M. R. Willig, and N. A. Bitar. 1980. Home range size in eastern chipmunks, Tamias striatus, as a function of number of captures: statistical biases of inadequate sampling. Journal of Mammalogy 61:661-669. (PLE Contribution #62)

Mares, M. A., R. Adams, T. E. Lacher, Jr., and M. Willig. 1980. Home range dynamics in chipmunks: response to experimental manipulation of population density and distribution. Ann. Carnegie Museum 49:193-201. (PLE Contribution #61)

Rabatin, S. C. 1980. The occurrences of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus tenuis with moss. Mycologia 72:191-195. (PLE Contribution #63)

Robertson, D. J. 1980. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) and mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of the Bear Run Nature Reserve in Southwestern Pennsylvania. The Melsheimer Ent. Series # 27. (PLE Contribution #63)

Seward, R. M. 1980. Adult feeding in two species of Chiromidae (Diptera). Entomological News 91:164.(PLE Contribution #65)

Swegman, B. and L. C. Ferrington, Jr. 1980. New records of western Trichoptera with notes on their biology. Great Basin Naturalist 40:287-291. (PLE Contribution #66)

Yocom, D. H. and D. T. Wicklow. 1980. Community differentiation along a dune succession: an experimental approach with coprophilous fungi. Ecology 61:868-80. (PLE Contribution #67)


Coffman, W. P. 1979. Neglected characters in pupal morphology as tools in taxonomy and phylogeny of Chrionomidae (Diptera). Entomologica Scandinavica 10:37-46. (PLE Contribution #54)

Kostalos, M. 1979. Ecology and population dynamics of Gammarus minus Say (Amphopodia: Gammaridae). Crustaceane 37:113-122. (PLE Contribution #56)

Krzysik, A. J. 1979. Resource allocation, coexistence, and the niche structure of a streambank salamander community. Ecological Monographs 49:173-194. (PLE Contribution #55)

Rabatin, S. C. 1979. Seasonal and edaphic variation in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection of grasses by Glomus tenuis. The Phytologist 83:95 102. (PLE Contribution #57)


Helsel, E. D. and D. T. Wicklow. 1978. Arthropod colonization of pre-aged as compared with fresh feces. Canadian Entomologist 110:217-222. (PLE Contribution #53)


Wicklow, D. T. 1977. Germination response in Emmenantha penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae). Ecology 58:201-205. (PLE Contribution #52)


Mares, M. A., M. Watson and E. E. Lacher, Jr. 1976. Home range perturbations in Tamias straitus: food supply as a determinant of home range and density. Oecologia 25:1-12. (PLE Contribution #50)

Wartinbee, D. and W. P. Coffman. 1976. Quantitative determination of chironomid emergence from enclosed channels in a small lotic ecosystem. American Midland Naturalist 95:479 485. (PLE Contribution #51)


Angel, K. and D. T. Wicklow. 1975. Relationships between coprophilous fungi and fecal substrates in a Colorado grassland. Mycologia 67:63-74. (PLE Contribution #48)

Wicklow, D. T. 1975. Fire as an environmental cue initiating ascomycete development in a tallgrass prairie. Mycologia 67:852-863. (PLE Contribution #49)


Angel, K. and D. T. Wicklow. 1974. Decomposition of rabbit feces: an indication of the significance of the coprophilous microflora in energy flow schemes. Journal of Ecology 2:459-467. (PLE Contribution #47)

Wicklow, D. T. and V. Moore. 1974. The effect of incubation on the coprophilous fungal succession. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 62:411-415. (PLE Contribution #45)

Wicklow, D. T. and W. F. Whittingham. 1974. Soil microfungal changes among the profiles of disturbed conifer-hardwood forests. Ecology 55:3-16. (PLE Contribution #46)


Coffman, W. P. 1973. Energy flow in a woodland stream ecosystem: II. The taxonomic composition and phenology of the Chironomidae as determined by the collection of pupal exuviae. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 71:281-322. (PLE Contribution #41)


Costa, R. R. and K. W. Cummins. 1972. Evaluating the contribution of Leptodora and other zooplankton components to the diet of various fish. American Midland Naturalist 87:559-564. (PLE Contribution #42)


Coffman, W. P., K. W. Cummins and J. C. Wuycheck. 1971. Energy flow in a woodland stream ecosystem: I. Tissue support trophic structure of the autumnal community. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 68:232-276.(PLE Contribution #36)


Seymour, R. L. 1970. The genus Saprolegnia. Verlag van J. Cramer. Lehre, Germany. (PLE Contribution #40)


Costa, R. R. and K. W. Cummins. 1969. Durinal vertical migration pattern of Leptodora kindtii (Focke) (Crustacea: Cladocera) in a shallow eutrophic reservior. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 54:533-541. (PLE Contribution #33)

Cummins, K. W., R. R. Costa, R. E. Rowe, G. A. Moshiri, R. M. Scanlon, and R. K. Zajdel. 1969. Ecological energetics of a natural population of the predaceous zooplankter Leptodora kindtii (Focke) (Crustacea: Cladocera). Oikos 20:189 223. (PLE Contribution #34)

Herbst, R. P. 1969. Ecological factors and the distribution of Cladophora glomerata in the Great Lakes. American Midland Naturalist 82:90-98. (PLE Contribution #35)

Kormondy, E. J. 1969. Comparative ecology of sandspit-ponds. American Midland Naturalist 82:28-61.(PLE Contribution #38)

Moshiri, G. A. and K. W. Cummins. 1969. Calorific values for Leptodora kindtii (Focke) (Crustacea: Cladocera) and select food organisms. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 66:91-99. (PLE Contribution #39)

DeMarte, J. A. and R. T. Hartman. 1973. Studies on absorption of 32P, 59Fe, and 45Ca by water-milfoil Myriophyllum exalbescens (Fernald). Ecology 55:188-194. (PLE Contribution #43)

Wohler, J. R. and R. T. Hartman. 1973. Some characteristics of an Oscillatoria-dominated metalimnetic phytoplankton community. Ohio Journal of Science 73:297 307. (PLE Contribution #44)


Tryon, C. A. and H. N. Cunningham. 1968. Characteristics of Pocket Gophers along an altitudinal transect. Journal of Mammalogy 49:699-705. (PLE Contribution #37)

Tryon, C.A., W. R. Kodrich and H. N. Cunningham. 1968. Measurement of relative thyroid activity in free-ranging rodents along an altitudinal transect. Nature 218:278-280. (PLE Contribution #31)


Hartman, R. T. and D. L. Brown. 1967. Changes in internal atmosphere of submersed vascular hydrophytes in relation to photosynthesis. Ecology 48:252 258. (PLE Contribution #30)


Cummins, K. W., W. P. Coffman and P. A. Roff. 1966. Trophic relationships in a small woodland stream. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 16:627-638. (PLE Contribution #32)

Hartman, R. T. and D. L. Brown. 1966. Methane as a constituent of the internal atmosphere of vascular plants. Limnology and Oceanography 11:109-112. (PLE Contribution #29)


Wohler, J. R., I. M. Wohler, and R. T. Hartman. 1965. The occurrence of Spirodela oligorrhiza in Western Pennsylvania. Castanea 30:230-231. (PLE Contribution #27)


Lauff, G. H. and K. W. Cummins. 1964. A model stream for studies in lotic ecology. Ecology 45:168-191.(PLE Contribution #25)

Mecom, J. O. and K. W. Cummins. 1964. A preliminary study of the trophic relationships of the larvae of Branchycentrus americanus (Banks) (Trichoptera: Branchycentridae). Trans. Amer. Microscop. Soc., 83:233-243. (PLE Contribution #26)



Dugdale, V. A. and R. C. Dugdale. 1962. Nitrogen metabolish in Lakes. II. Role of nitrogen fixation in Sanctuary Lake, Pennsylvania. Limn. and Oceano. 7:170-177. (PLE Contribution #24)


Hartman, R. T. and C. L. Himes. 1961. Phytoplankton from Pymatuning Reservoir in downstream areas of the Shenango River. Ecology 42:180-183. (PLE Contribution #21)


Hartman, R. T. and J. H. Graffius. 1960. Quantitative seasonal changes in the phytoplankton communities of Pymatuning Reservoir. Ecology 41:333-340. (PLE Contribution #18)

Morgan, P. V. and C. Gainor. 1960. A survey of the heterotrophic bacteria in Sanctuary Lake, of the Pymatuning Reservoir. Ecology 4:715-721. (PLE Contribution #22)

Walker, P. C. and R. T. Hartman. 1960. The forest sequence of the Hartstown Bog area. Ecology 41:461-474. (PLE Contribution #16)


Cribbens, J. 1959. A preliminary survey of the Hydrocarina of Santuary Lake, Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 33:226-235. (PLE Contribution #20)

Hartman, R. T. and S. M. English. 1959. Wolffiella floridana in Western Pennsylvania. Castanea 24:45-57.(PLE Contribution #23)


Hartman, R. T. 1958. Studies of plankton centrifuge efficiency. Ecology 39:374 376. (PLE Contribution #17)

Schwartz, F. J. and J. Norvell. 1958. Food, growth and sexual dimorphism of the Redside Dace, Clinostomus elongatus(Kirtland) in Linesville Creek, Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Ohio Journal of Science 58:311. (PLE Contribution #28)



Borecky, G. W. 1956. Population density of the limnetic Cladocera of Pymatuning Reservoir. Ecology 37: 719-727. (PLE Contribution #14)


Boatman, J. B. and J. H. Sunder. 1955. Salt effect on 131I metabolism in the salamander. Science 122:3182. (PLE Contribution #19)


Jackson, D. F. and J. McFadden. 1954. Phytoplankton photosynthesis in Sanctuary Lake, Pymatuning Reservoir. Ecology 35:1-4. (PLE Contribution #6)

Marcy, D. E. 1954. The food and growth of the white crappie, Apomixes annularis, in Pymatuning Lake, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Copeia 3:236. (PLE Contribution #7)

Orr, H. D. 1954. Quantitative studies of protozoan populations from two areas of Pymatuning Lake, Pennsylvania. Ecology 35:1-4. (PLE Contribution #9)

Priddy, R. B. 1954. Insects reared from Lepidoptera. Entolomological News 65. (PLE Contribution #10)

Priddy, R. B. 1954. Three new species of nearctic conophorus (Diptera, Bombylidae). Journal of Kansas Entolomological Society 27. (PLE Contribution #8)

Rough, G. E. 1954. The frequency range of mechanical vibrations perceived by three species of freshwater fish. Copeia 3:191-194. (PLE Contribution #4)

Schwartz, F. J. and C. A. Tryon, Jr. 1954. Comparisons of small fish populations in Pymatuning Lake, Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management 18:286-288. (PLE Contribution #3)

Schwartz, F. J. and C. B. Curtin. 1954. An unusual condition in the tropical fish Moliensesia latipinna. Copeia 3:232-234. (PLE Contribution #15)

Tryon, C. A. 1954. The effect of carp enclosures on growth of submerged aquatic vegetation in Pymatuning Lake, Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Management 18(2); 251-254. (PLE Contribution #5)


Mehner, J. F. 1953. Little Blue Herons in northwestern Pennsylvania. The Wilson Bulletin 65:51. (PLE Contribution #11)


Meaner, J. F. 1952. Notes on song cessation. Auk, 69:466-469. (PLE Contribution #2)

Mehner, J. F. 1952. Turkey vultures attacking the Great Blue Heron. The Wilson Bulletin 64:242. (PLE Contribution #12)

Tryon, C. A. Jr. and D. F. Jackson. 1952. Summer plankton productivity of Pymatuning Lake, Pennsylvania. Ecology 33:342-350. (PLE Contribution #1)


Tryon, C. A. Jr. 1951. The use of skull measurements at the subspecies level in mammalian taxonomy, with special reference to Thomomys talpoides. Journal of Mammalogy 32:3. (PLE Contribution #13)